Measures to prevent infectious diseases in winter!

Measures to prevent infectious diseases in winter!

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It's winter, it's cold. In connection with the season, we started to receive more frequent disease news from people around us. Sudden changes in temperature and the effects of viruses circulating in the environment, many people have to walk around with a handkerchief. In winter, children are the most vulnerable group against diseases. With the opening of schools, children who move from home and friends to crowded environments such as classrooms, kindergartens and kindergartens are getting more sick than summer months because they come in contact with many children.

In winter, most viruses and bacteria-transmitted diseases in children are the most common Director of the Department of Pediatrics, Anadolu Medical Center, Pediatrics and Pediatric Endocrinology specialist. Neslihan Güngör, especially in winter, virus diseases come first. In winter, more droplet infection and child-to-child-infectious diseases are frequently seen reminding. Gör Viruses are easily transmitted from one child to another, or from an adult to a child, as infected droplets are suspended in the air and taken through the respiratory tract. Sometimes the child sneezes, sneezes spread around the virus containing these dirty droplets, cling to the surrounding objects. When other children take these objects and take them to their mouths, they can catch the virus and get sick hast.

Respiratory Tract Infections

Anadolu Medical Center, Department of Pediatric Diseases and Medical Genetics. Ela Tahmaz In the following months, respiratory diseases and symptoms seen in children are listed as follows:
Flu: It is one of the most common pediatric diseases in winter. It starts with a slight runny nose. Sometimes there is a slight cough. Sometimes the cough can be a bit more severe. This table is rarely added to fire.
Flu: Influenza caused by influenza viruses usually starts with high fever. Headache, muscle aches, fever up to 39-40 degrees, runny nose, nasal fullness, cough happens.
Sore throat: Tonsil infection caused by beta streptococcus, commonly known as 'beta microbial', is very common in school-age children. A child whose tonsils swell has difficulty in swallowing and sometimes breathing while sleeping. In children with throat infections, beta streptococcal infection should be investigated by laboratory tests. If beta germ is detected, antibiotic treatment should be started and this treatment should be continued for 10 days. In simple upper respiratory tract infections, antibiotics need not be used unnecessarily, and bacteria should not be prepared to gain resistance to antibiotics. However, treatment of infection caused by beta germ is particularly important. Because untreated, life-threatening heart, kidney and joint disorders may occur in children due to infection caused by beta streptococcus.
Pneumonia: Pneumonia, which is mostly seen in winter, is a febrile disease that occurs as an inflammation of one or more lobes of the lung. In this disease, the air sacs in the lungs are filled with an inflammatory fluid. The oxygen exchange function, which is the task of the lungs, is impaired and therefore the oxygen level in the blood decreases. Pneumonia caused by various bacteria and viruses is a serious lung disease that can result in death, especially in risk group patients. It is more severe in young children, older people and people with a chronic disease and may result in death. Fever exceeding 39 degrees, cough, dark rusty phlegm, which is often rust-colored, are the most important symptoms. It often starts after a nose and throat infection.
Bronchiolitis and bronchitis: Bronchiolitis is an inflammation of small bronchi called bronchioles in children in the early age group (especially under 3 years of age). Bronchitis occurs in older children and adults. Bronchitis is an acute or chronic inflammation of the large bronchi, the mucous tissue that covers the air tubes that branch out of the trachea and spread to the lungs. Bronchitis is a frequent complication of influenza infection in the upper respiratory tract. Pulmonary and bronchial infections are also common during pertussis and measles. Particularly in acute bronchitis in children and adolescents, viruses are more important than bacteria. But bacteria can also cause acute bronchitis. Symptoms include persistent dry cough, phlegm, fever and chest pain.
Middle ear inflammation: Middle ear inflammation after cold is the most common disease in children. Because the Eustachian tube is shorter and horizontal in infants and children than adults, bacteria can pass from the nose and throat to the middle ear more quickly. In colds, sinusitis or throat infections, the Eustachian tube closes and the liquid contaminated with bacteria remains in the middle ear. This creates an environment where microbes can reproduce more quickly. Symptoms of this disease, also known as Acute Otitis Media, are ear pain, fever and hearing loss and feeding difficulties, especially in infants.
Whooping cough: Children under the age of 1 and especially those who have not been vaccinated are at risk in this droplet-transmitted disease. First, dry cough and mild fever are seen. Cough in 1-2 weeks, begins to come in seizures. During coughing, the child turns red, bruises and even sweats.

Rash Diseases

Viruses can cause rash infectious diseases as well as upper respiratory diseases, he says. Anadolu Health Center Child Health and Diseases Specialist Ayşe Sokullu, These illnesses that children experience intensively when they enter crowded environments in winter are listed as follows:

Rubella: Rubella virus sometimes causes fever and swelling of the lymph nodes in the neck. Small, smooth, reddish pink spots appear on the face. Spots spread on the body and palate. Vaccination is possible.
Measles: Against measles virus caused by the disease is possible to be protected by vaccination. The first symptoms are fever, runny nose, watery eyes and dry cough for a day or two. White spots on the inside of cheeks, slight redness on the forehead and ears are seen. This redness then spreads throughout the body.
Chickenpox: Varicella-zoster virus-induced illness begins with mild fever, weakness, loss of appetite and severe itching, and red spots appear on the body within a short time. These spots then turn into acne and crust. It is transmitted from person to person via droplets or air.
Sixth Disease: Sudden onset and rising to 39-40 degrees fever is the most important symptom of the sixth disease. Fever, mild runny nose, headache and nausea are other symptoms. The lymph nodes in the lateral folds of the neck, behind the ears and the back of the head may swell. In this disease, immediately after fever falls, a red-colored itch-free skin rash occurs.
These diseases, as well as diseases due to the gastrointestinal tract and sudden changes in air temperature due to atypical pneumonia, is also expressed. Sokullu, “Atypical pneumonia (typical nonpneumonia) is more common with extrapulmonary symptoms. The most common symptoms are headache, abdominal pain, nausea, diarrhea, skin rashes, blurred consciousness. In atypical pneumonia, respiratory system examination may not show any signs of disease. For this reason, pneumonia should be investigated in every child with fever-onset disease, lung film should be taken for diagnosis, sputum culture and blood tests should be performed. ”

Who is at Risk?

Saying that children entering crowded environments are at risk for both viral and bacterial diseases Anadolu Health Center Child Health and Diseases Specialist Cihan Berkarda, “However, in terms of respiratory diseases, children with asthma and allergies, children in crowded families, small babies, children with school children and families with small babies are in the risk group. Because that baby carries the risk of catching infections brought by his older brother or sister from school. Children with diabetes are more likely to suffer from influenza and their blood sugar is out of control. Children with impaired innate immune system and children receiving cancer treatment are at risk. Therefore, all children in the risk group should be vaccinated against influenza and other respiratory diseases. Influenza vaccine can prevent all serious infections such as pneumonia, pneumonia and all common influenza infections. The American Academy of Pediatrics put the flu vaccine in children on a routine vaccination schedule. Children up to the first three years, two doses are given at intervals of one month. Then a dose is made every year. We are following this calendar at Anadolu Medical Center ”.
He said that pneumonia vaccine was routinely started at Anadolu Medical Center last year. Ela Tahmaz said, bu This is a routine vaccination given to every baby in the USA since 2000. We do four doses in 2-4-6 and 16 months. This vaccine, which has been started with the approval of the Ministry of Health in our country, is a vaccine developed against pneumococcal bacteria. It is possible to prevent lung infections, middle ear infections, pharyngitis, throat infections, upper respiratory tract infections and sepsis causing death in infants. There are also routine vaccinations that the Ministry of Health has given before. Diphtheria, whooping cough, measles, meningitis vaccine and chickenpox vaccine. In order to prevent these diseases, it is necessary to have these vaccines included in the routine vaccination schedule..
Recalling the importance of vaccination to prevent infectious diseases. Neslihan Güngör underlines that hygiene rules should be followed. Gör Taking necessary cleaning measures in kindergartens, schools, cleaning the toys, surfaces properly and first of all children should be educated about hygiene rules from a small age Gün, says Güngör, “For example, in Pittsburg Children's Hospital where I work abroad, you should take your hand to your mouth and sneeze. Did you close the handkerchief 'he would have a post. Even the great people read it and gathered it discretionary. It's simple, but I see a lot in society. They sneeze, cough and sneeze comfortably in the community without closing their hands to their mouths. Particular attention should be paid to hand cleaning. Children should be instructed to wash their hands with soap and water for the appropriate time. This period may be in the form of a small child singing from beginning to end. Konuşuy
Their parents also warned about smoking. Güngör says that the cigarette that parents smoke alongside children makes their children more susceptible to infectious diseases. In order to be resistant to diseases, children should also be fed with vitamin-rich vegetables and fruits in winter. Güngör said, “Winter is also a period in which children are more frequent in crowded indoor environments and cannot find opportunities for physical activity. For this reason, parents should also pay attention to balance the energy intake and use of children. Otherwise, our children are overweight at the end of winter. Obesity is a problem in the contemporary world and we should not forget obesity among the diseases that winter will prepare the ground for. Konuşuy

Need Intensive Care

Reminding that respiratory diseases seen in children may sometimes need treatment in intensive care conditions, Anadolu Medical Center Child Health and Diseases Pediatric Intensive Care Supervisor. Ayşe Akcan Arıkan “The most common problems in winter are respiratory diseases. Some vulnerable groups, such as those with congenital heart disease, are slightly more affected by respiratory diseases than other children. Because these children cannot breathe enough and get tired quickly, they need support in case of illness. This support treatment is sometimes limited enough to be given in service conditions such as oxygen, cold steam application or airway expanding treatments. But when these are not enough, we take children into intensive care. ”
Reminding that there is the possibility of providing more interventional and higher support in intensive care. Can We use a method that we call 'non-invasive ventilation' by using a special mask only through the nose, without tying children who are not in serious condition to the respiratory support machine. We can do this from small children to adult children. However, if the child has severe respiratory insufficiency, we will place a breathing tube in the breathing tubes so that they can breathe mechanically. We are able to apply the necessary airway opener treatments and other treatments both directly to the lungs and intravenously here. ”
Anadolu Medical Center Child Intensive Care is extremely equipped in this regard. Akcan gives the following information about the unit: iz In our unit, we have a total of 6 beds, which are reserved for pediatric patients, and a ventilator for which we can administer respiratory therapy. We have a monitoring device that will perform blood pressure measurement, minute minute carbon dioxide measurement, blood oxygen level measurement. Even if our nursing friends are not one-to-one, they can see all the vital signs of the patients on the screens by central monitoring. Thus, even children who need the most respiratory support can be kept under control from moment to moment. ”

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