The health of the expectant mother during pregnancy depends on her good health before pregnancy. Therefore, care that will be done before the beginning of pregnancy contributes to this process to pass without problems. A complete medical examination of the expectant mother will have a good effect on the future health of the mother and the baby. Problems will be tried to be eliminated or minimized. In the international arena, the definition of antenatal care is described as "a comprehensive care program that begins in pre-pregnancy under optimal conditions and is maintained periodically during pregnancy, including the coordination of medical care and psychosocial support".
In this article, I will try to give you answers such as what should be done in this context, what is the content, what should our mothers be careful about.
As in every branch of medicine, the history to be taken from the patient and the mother is very important. The doctor may have some very important clues in this interrogation. Diseases of the expectant mother, if any operations are questioned. Psychosocial status of the expectant mother is observed. This issue should be clarified as relatives marriages will bring some problems.
The presence of genetic diseases and various blood diseases (such as mediterranean anemia) in the progeny of mother and father candidates are investigated. The family is asked about the frequency of high blood pressure, diabetes, cancer.
It should be clarified whether the expectant mother has a habit of smoking or drinking alcohol. Pregnancy and delivery of the candidates with serious weight problems will be more problematic considering that they are encouraged to pregnancy either after losing weight. Or during pregnancy, weight control should be done with the help of a dietitian.
Precise knowledge of the age of the fetus is essential for ideal obstetric treatment. This eliminates the risk of premature birth, on the contrary, prevents late. In this respect, the first day of the last menstrual date of the expectant mother should be tried to be known. If this is not possible, early ultrasound examinations provide information about the time of birth.
The experiences of the pregnant mother who had previously been pregnant and gave birth are very important for the ongoing pregnancy. Because most of the complications of previous pregnancy, recurrent pregnancy tends to be.
Gynecological examination of the expectant mother and repetition of the smear test are important. If there is a vaginal infection, treatment should be performed before pregnancy. Breast cancer is one of the most common cancer types among women. Therefore, breast examination of the expectant mother is mandatory.
Not to encounter diseases that are described as neural tube defects in the infant, which adversely affect the quality of life of both the family and the newborn; In order to minimize the risk, the mother should be given folic acid starting 3 months in advance.
Multivitamins containing all vitamins should be recommended to mothers who are insufficient in terms of nutrition. Pregnant mothers who are thought to have iron deficiency as a result of blood counts should be given iron preparations and it should be reminded that the effects of these drugs when taken with milk and milk products will decrease.
Anemia seen in mothers is not always due to iron deficiency. Especially vegetarians who take only herbal foods may have vitamin B12 deficiency and related anemia and nervous system damage. They should be supplemented with absolute B vitamins. Anemia affects not only the health of the mother, but also the infant.
Thyroid diseases of expectant mothers affect both the mother during pregnancy and the baby because she cannot produce hormone synthesis in the first 3 months of pregnancy. Therefore, it is very important to know the thyroid hormone values of the expectant mother from the beginning. Neglected babies may have problems in terms of intelligence.
In order to prevent blood mismatch and accompanying diseases, the mother and father must learn the blood types. If the mother is Rh (-) and the father is (+), the dispute is mentioned. Immediately at the beginning of pregnancy, the mother should evaluate the condition with indirect coombs test in the blood.
It is very important for the mothers to know the blood sugar levels before pregnancy. Fasting should be looked at HbA1c, which gives blood sugar level and sugar profile of the last 3 months after 1 hour toughness blood. If a diabetic problem is detected in the expectant mother, pregnancy should be allowed with diet and insulin supplementation if necessary. This follow-up will undoubtedly continue throughout the entire pregnancy.
The prospective mother should be evaluated for past or past infections. Rubella, toxoplasma, cytomegalovirus are among them. In addition, hepatitis B carriage of the expectant mother and liver function tests should be evaluated if such carrier is present. Babies of expectant mothers are exposed to risk at birth. Such infants should be given both vaccine and hepatitis immunoglobulin as soon as they are born.
The mother should also be screened for hepatitis C and AIDS, although this is not common in our country. In addition, syphilis screening, although not routine, may be recommended.
Mothers and fathers who are going to marry relatives should be offered chromosome analysis. This analysis is performed with blood in couples.
Hemoglobin electrophoresis should be requested especially from the mother.
In the following articles, we will find answers to questions such as how to follow-up during pregnancy, which tests are asked when, and the importance of these tests.
I wish all expectant mothers a perfect pregnancy.