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Most methods of birth control are safe during breastfeeding, but methods that contain estrogen can lower your milk production. Since it's important for breastfeeding moms who don't want to become pregnant to use birth control (breastfeeding itself isn't reliable contraception), it's a matter of picking one that won't decrease your milk supply.
Birth control pills usually contain the hormones estrogen and progesterone. Taking estrogen, which is naturally low when a woman is breastfeeding, can reduce milk production. Progesterone, which increases during breastfeeding, actually boosts milk production. So a progesterone-only pill (also called the mini pill) is a better choice for nursing moms.
There are also two types of IUDs, one that uses no hormones at all and another that releases a small amount of progesterone. Both are perfectly safe during breastfeeding and will not affect milk production.
The Depo Provera shot, a progesterone-only injection that you get every three months at your healthcare provider's office, is also perfectly fine for breastfeeding moms.
Read more about hormonal birth control for breastfeeding moms.